Ventura (Images of America) by Glenda J. Jackson
By Glenda J. Jackson
Franciscan monk Fr. Junipero Serra, founding father of the Spanish challenge process in California, raised a go at the seashore on March 31, 1782, at a place that grew to become a common wayfarer's midpoint among la and element belief. This was once the commitment of undertaking San Buenaventura. Bordered by means of rivers out of the foothills, this coastal quarter had initially been domestic to many Chumash Indian villages, relationship again to a thousand A.D. The small challenge outpost speedy flourished and at last grew right into a city whole with dust streets, wood sidewalks, saloons, church buildings, and diverse adventures and calamities. On March 10, 1866, the "City of fine Fortune" included and obtained one of many first charters from the then 16-year-old, thirty first country within the union. this day the town of Ventura bustles with greater than 110,000 citizens and is named the "Gateway to the Channel Islands."
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Entrepreneurial and independent minded as these gifted inventors may have been, in order to secure a return to, and obtain support for, their inventive activity, they were willing to move and make the longer-term, if not career-long, commitments that those who were putting up the capital increasingly demanded. Rather than maintaining their independent status, these inventors usually became principals—not employees—of the ﬁrms established to exploit their technological discoveries, and they committed themselves (generally on quite favorable terms) to stay with the new ﬁrm for a period of years and to transfer their patents to it.
See Khan and Sokoloff (2004). Introduction 31 6. The design of the patent system in Britain discouraged trade in patents in other ways as well. For example, the high fees encouraged many inventors to extract returns by keeping their discoveries secret rather than by ﬁling for patents and marketing their inventions to those better positioned to directly exploit them. This inclination toward secrecy was encouraged by the ability of those with wealth to patent the inventions of others who lacked the resources to pay the fee.
Mowery (1983, 1995). As Mowery shows, one also sees during this period the emergence of large companies such as Arthur D Little, that conducted R&D on contract in a broad range of technologies. 20. For example, Alfred Sloan argued that the abundant resources large corporations could offer technologically creative individuals expanded their range of possibilities, and cited the career of Charles Kettering, who was instrumental in developing the self-starter, quick-drying paints, improved blends of gasoline, improved designs of engines, as well as Freon for General Motors.