Surfactants and Interfacial Phenomena by Milton J. Rosen
By Milton J. Rosen
The top-rated textual content at the homes and functions of surfactants--now totally revised and up to date
The prior decade has visible major advancements in surfactant chemistry: the emergence of gemini surfactants, superwetting brokers, and eco-friendly surfactants. assurance in their constitution and functions makes this new 3rd version of Surfactants and Interfacial Phenomena, already the simplest to be had textual content at the topic, particularly well timed.
Using at the very least arithmetic, this publication essentially describes the houses and functions of surfactants. It explains the mechanisms during which those fabrics function in interfacial approaches comparable to foaming, wetting, emulsion formation, and detergency, and indicates the correlations among a surfactant’s chemical constitution and its motion.
The new 3rd variation beneficial properties updates and revisions together with:
- Coverage of appropriate new literature showing after the second one Edition
- An whole bankruptcy on gemini surfactants
- Guidelines for number of surfactant pairs to optimize surfactant properties
- A part on biodegradable surfactants within the context of renewable assets (green surfactants)
- Estimations of marine organism toxicity and bioconcentration from the physicochemical homes of surfactants
- Dynamic floor pressure reduction
- Synergy in wetting and superwetting by way of surfactant mixtures
- Foaming of aqueous dispersions of finely divided solids
- Demulsification via surfactants
- Expanded tables of information no longer compiled in the other text
- Additional difficulties on the finish of every chapter
Written via Milton Rosen, a well known professional within the box, Surfactants and Interfacial Phenomena, 3rd version offers an easy-to-read, ordinary source for commercial chemists and a textual content for lecture room use, and is an unheard of instrument for knowing and utilising the newest details on surfactants.
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Additional info for Surfactants and Interfacial Phenomena
Then ns1 is plotted against C1 to yield the adsorption isotherm. A variety of analytical techniques are available for determining the change in concentration of the surfactant (Rosen, 1972). The surface concentration À1 , in mol/cm2, of the surfactant may be calculated when as , the surface area per unit mass of the solid adsorbent, in cm2 /g (the specific surface area), is known. À1 ¼ ÁC1 V as Â m ð2:4Þ For solid substrates that cannot be obtained in finely divided form, but can be obtained as a planar, smooth, nonporous surface on film, surface concentrations can sometimes be calculated from contact angles (Chapter 6, Section IA1).
In general, adsorption of surfactants involves single ions (Kolbel, 1959; Griffith, 1967) rather than micelles (Chapter 3). 1. * Involves replacement of counterions adsorbed onto the substrate from the solution by similarly charged surfactant ions (Wakamatsu, 1968; Rupprecht, 1972; Law, 1966). FIGURE 2-6 Ion pairing. Reprinted with permission from M. J. rosen, J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 52, 431 (1975). * It should be clearly understood that the rigid arrangement of the hydrophobic groups depicted in Figures 2-5–2-10 is only for convenience in illustrating the mechanisms of adsorption.
These surfactant aggregates, termed admicelles or hemimicelles by various investigators, were assumed to be more or less flat. Recent investigations (Manne and Gaub, 1995; Grosse and Estel, 2000; Wolgemuth, 2000) indicate that these aggregates, when in the form of monolayers (Figure 2-10a), may also be hemispherical and, when in the form of bilayers (Figure 2-10b), may also be in the form of cylinders (Figure 2-10b). They will be designated surface aggregates to distinguish them from micelles (Chapter 3) in the solution phase.