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Renaissance in Italy by John Addington Symonds

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By John Addington Symonds

Buy of this publication comprises unfastened trial entry to www.million-books.com the place you could learn greater than 1000000 books at no cost. this can be an OCR variation with typos. Excerpt from publication: bankruptcy III. THE AGE OF THE DESPOTS. Salient characteristics of the Fourteenth and 15th Centuries in Italy— Relation of Italy to the Empire and to the Church—The Illegitimate name of Italian Potentates—The unfastened Emergence of Personality—Frederick II. and the impact of his Example— Ezzelino da Romano—Six kinds of Italian Despots—Feudal Seigneurs—Vicars of the Empire—Captains of the People— Condottieri—Nephews and Sons of Popes—Eminent Burghers— Italian incapability for Self-Government in Commonwealths— Forcible Tenure of strength inspired own Ability—The situation of the Despot's Life—Instances of household Crime within the Ruling Houses—Macaulay's Description of the Italian Tyrant —Savonarola's and Matteo Villani's Description of a Tyrant—The Absorption of Smaller by means of higher Tyrannies within the Fourteenth Century—History of the Visconti—Francesco'' Sforza—The half performed in Italian Politics via army Leaders—Mercenary Warfare—Alberico da Barbiano, Braccio da Montone, Sforza Atten- dolo—History of the Sforza Dynasty—The homicide of Galeazzo Maria Sforza—The Ethics of Tyrannicide in Italy—Relation of the Despots to Arts and Letters—Sigismondo Pandolfo Malatesta —Duke Federigo of Urbino—The university of Vittorino and the court docket of Urbino—The Cortegiano of Castiglione—The beliefs of the Italian Courtier and the fashionable Gentleman—General Retrospect. The fourteenth and 15th centuries can be referred to as the Age of the Despots in Italian heritage, because the 12th and 13th are the Age of the unfastened Burghs, and because the 16th and 17th are the Age of overseas Enslavement. It used to be in the course of the age of the Despots that the stipulations of the Renaissance have been developed, and that the Renaissance itself assumed adefinite personality in Italy. less than tyrannies, in the middle of intrigues, wars, and r...

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Renaissance in Italy

Buy of this publication comprises unfastened trial entry to www. million-books. com the place you could learn greater than 1000000 books at no cost. this is often an OCR variation with typos. Excerpt from e-book: bankruptcy III. THE AGE OF THE DESPOTS. Salient traits of the Fourteenth and 15th Centuries in Italy— Relation of Italy to the Empire and to the Church—The Illegitimate name of Italian Potentates—The loose Emergence of Personality—Frederick II.

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Ix. '] [Footnote 27: See Luigi Mocenigo in Rel. degli Amb. Veneti, vol. x. p. ] And indeed his measures formed the nucleus of the Tridentine decrees upon this topic in the final sessions of the Council. Under this government Rome assumed an air of exemplary behavior which struck foreigners with mute astonishment. Cardinals were compelled to preach in their basilicas. The Pope himself, who was vain of his eloquence, preached. [28] Aretino, with his usual blackguardly pointedness of expression, has given a hint of what the new regime implied in the following satiric lines:−− Carafla, ipocrita infingardo, Che tien per coscienza spirituale Quando si mette del pepe in sul cardo.

P. ] The wars between France and Spain revived the almost obsolete dispute, which the despots of the fifteenth century and the diplomatic confederation of the five great powers had tended in large measure to erase. The Guelfs and Ghibellines were now partisans of France and Spain respectively. Thus a true political importance was regained for the time−honored factions; and in the distracted state of Italy they were further intensified by the antagonism between exiles and the ruling families in cities.

Footnote 18: See above, p. ] CHAPTER II. THE PAPACY AND THE TRIDENTINE COUNCIL. , and their manifest tendency to substitute oligarchical for Papal tyranny in the Church, had the effect of bringing the conciliar principle itself into disfavor with the European powers. The first symptom of this repudiation of the Council by Europe was shown in the neutrality proclaimed by Germany. The attitude of other Courts and nations proved that the Western races were for the moment prepared to leave the Papal question open on the basis supplied by the Council of Constance.

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