Battle of the Boyne 1690: The Irish campaign for the English by Michael McNally
By Michael McNally
In April 1685, James II ascended the English throne. An overt Catholic, James proved unpopular together with his Protestant topics, and a gaggle of nobles invited the Dutch prince William of Orange to take the throne within the excellent Revolution of 1688; James II fled to France. James back in 1689, a French fleet touchdown him at Kinsale in eire. On 14 June 1690, William led a military to eire and got here face-to-face with the Jacobites alongside the banks of the Boyne close to Drogheda. This e-book describes the occasions that resulted in the momentous conflict on 1 July that might come to a decision the destiny of the crown of britain.
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Additional resources for Battle of the Boyne 1690: The Irish campaign for the English crown
But British coal remains expensive and suffers from a lack of demand from big consumers, such as electricity power stations, which have moved to fuels like gas, oil and cheap coal imports. More pit closures have occurred and the future of the coal industry is uncertain. Electricity generation and distribution is now privatized and mainly provided by coal-, gas-and oil-fired power stations, in addition to a small amount of hydro-electricity. But 27 per cent of electricity is produced by thirteen nuclear power stations of various types.
However, the provision of cheap and environmentally suitable energy for both domestic and industrial use will be a problem for Britain in the future. Transport and communications Transport and communications are divided between the public and private sectors of the economy, although many state businesses have now been privatized. Roads, railways, shipping and civil aviation provide the country’s transport system. British Telecom, competing telecommunications companies and the Post Office supply most communications needs.
The mainlands of England, Scotland and Wales form the largest island and are known politically as Great Britain. Northern Ireland shares the secondlargest island with the Republic of Ireland (Ireland or Eire), which has been independent of Britain since 1921. Smaller islands, such as Anglesey, the Isle of Wight, the Orkneys, Shetlands, Hebrides and Scillies, lie off the coasts and are part of the British political union. The Isle of Man in the Irish Sea and the Channel Islands off the French west coast are not, however, part of the United Kingdom.