Applied petroleum reservoir engineering by B C Craft; Murray F Hawkins
By B C Craft; Murray F Hawkins
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Another option in favor of coalbed gas is to expand the natural gasfueled generation, which makes up about one-ﬁfth of all electricity in the United States. 1) in the United States shows that carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx), sulfur oxides (SOx), mercury (Hg), and particulates are much lower for natural gas. The percent pollutants from coal are 44% for CO2 and about 80% for CO and NOx more than natural gas. 8 billion mt of CO2 per year (Pew Center, 2011; USEIA, 2013).
G. JORC, SAMREC Codes) for application at national, industrial, and institutional levels, as well as for global assessments. However, this approach clearly applies more extractable and marketable energy and mineral reserves than resources; the latter more appropriate to assessment of coalbed gas-in-place. As Reported by World Information Agencies Annual status of the world coal reserves, production, and consumption are reported by a few reliable information-gathering agencies such as the World Energy Council (WEC), World Coal Association, International Energy Agency (IEA), British Petroleum (BP) Statistical Review, and United States Energy Information Agency (USEIA).
Also, global annual coal reserves up to 2009 have been estimated by BGR (2010). FROM PAST TO FUTURE COAL PRODUCTION Coal production is closely linked to coalbed gas desorption especially in relationship to underground coal mining as discussed in Chapter 2. Gas explosions or outbursts are as old as the coal mines “dug” in the early nineteenth century and remained a major hazard affecting safety and productivity in underground coal mines for more than 200 years (Deul & Kim, 1986; Flores, 1998; Lama, 1995).