Acid Mine Drainage, Rock Drainage, and Acid Sulfate Soils. by James A. Jacobs
By James A. Jacobs
Provides the instruments had to research and clear up acid drainage problems
Featuring contributions from major specialists in technology and engineering, this booklet explores the complicated biogeochemistry of acid mine drainage, rock drainage, and acid sulfate soils. It describes find out how to expect, hinder, and remediate the environmental influence of acid drainage and the oxidation of sulfides, providing the most recent sampling and analytical equipment. additionally, readers will realize new methods for getting better important assets from acid mine drainage, together with bioleaching.
Acid Mine Drainage, Rock Drainage, and Acid Sulfate Soils experiences the most up-tp-date findings within the box, providing new insights into the underlying motives in addition to new instruments to reduce the damage of acid drainage:
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Extra resources for Acid Mine Drainage, Rock Drainage, and Acid Sulfate Soils. Causes, Assessment, Prediction, Prevention, and Remediation
Acid mine drainage. I. Jacobs, James A. (James Alan), 1956- editor of compilation. II. , 1936- editor of compilation. III. , editor of compilation. 49–dc23 2013016293 CONTENTS PREFACE CONTRIBUTORS PART I CAUSES OF ACID MINE DRAINAGE, ROCK DRAINAGE, AND SULFATE SOILS 1 Acid Drainage and Sulfide Oxidation: Introduction Introduction Early Earth Atmosphere Acid Drainage Deposits Resources from Acid Drainage Environmental Challenges Future Opportunities References and Suggested Reading 2 Vitriols in Antiquity Introduction Vitriol Terminology Uses for Vitriol References and Suggested Reading 3 Biogeochemistry of Acid Drainage Acid Drainage Overview Geochemistry of Acid Drainage Origin of Pyrite and Sulfur in Rocks and Soils Geochemical Processing and Sulfur in Rocks, Sediments, and Soils Microbiological Biogeochemistry of Acid Mine Drainage Genetic Sequences Microbial Growth Conditions Review of Microbial Processes Microbial Control Review of Naturally Occurring Acid Drainage Geochemistry in Perspective Summary References and Suggested Reading 4 Trace Element Geochemistry and Acid Rock Drainage Introduction Trace element Geology Site Studies Summary References and Suggested Reading 5 The Microbiology of Acid Drainage Role of Microorganisms in the Sulfur Cycle Natural Oxidation in the Sulfur Cycle Natural Reduction in the Sulfur Cycle Other Microorganism Reactions in the Sulfur Cycle References and Suggested Reading 6 Natural Acid Rock Generation, Drainage, and Metal Leaching: Impact on Exploration, Mining, and Reclamation Introduction Acid Rock Drainage Gossan Formation Supergene Mineralization Acid Rock Generation and Drainage Through Time Natural Metal Concentrations Geoenvironmental Models Conclusions References and Suggested Reading 7 The Sulfur Cycle: Acid Drainage and Beyond Some Background And Fundamentals Of Microbial Life Review of the Chemistry of Acid Mine Drainage The Origin and Evolution of Life on Earth Life in The Solar System Synthesis and Conclusions References and Suggested Reading PART II ASSESSMENT OF ACID MINE DRAINAGE, ROCK DRAINAGE, AND SULFATE SOILS 8 Sampling Strategies for Acid Drainage Studies Environmental Site Inspection Decision Units Sampling Strategies Sample Processing Multiple-Increment Sampling Theory Sources of Error References and Suggested Reading 9 Stream Characterization for Acid Mine Drainage Characterizing Streams for Acid Drainage Screening Using Field Kits Flow Measurements Collection and Storage of Water Samples Flow Measurement Examples and Exercises Exercises References and Suggested Reading 10 Overview of Soil and Groundwater Sampling Methods for Acid Drainage Studies Introduction Field Study Methods Well Installation Methods In Situ Remediation Systems References and Suggested Reading 11 Acid Drainage Sampling Design and Sample Preparation Introduction Design and Planning Sample Types and Sample Preparation Data Presentation, Interpretation, and Reporting Qualified Personnel and the Sampling Program Conclusions References and Suggested Reading 12 Acid Drainage and Aquatic Resources Introduction Effect of Acid Mine Drainage on Aquatic Resources Nitrogen and Acid Waters Problems and Questions References and Suggested Reading 13 Metals Associated with Acid Rock Drainage and Their Effect on Fish Health and Ecosystems Introduction Natural Sources of Metals Metal Transport and Cycling Metals Associated with ARD of Interest to Freshwater Fish Health and Ecology Trace Metal Assimilation by Aquatic Organisms Useful Tools in Studies of Trace Metals Conclusions References and Suggested Reading 14 Biological Sampling and Inventory Process Introduction Sampling for Benthic Macroinvertebrates Collecting a Benthic Sample SOS Method Sample Collection Exercise and Evaluation Problems and Questions References and Suggested Reading 15 Acid Rock Drainage as Related to Permafrost, Glaciers, And Climate Change Introduction Acid Rock Drainage and Permafrost Acid Rock Drainage and Retreating Glaciers Acid Rock Drainage and Climate Change Acid Sulfate Soils and Climate Change References and Suggested Reading 16 Acid Sulfate Soils Disturbing Acid Sulfate Soils Acid Sulfate Soils and Global Climate Changes Best Management Practices for Acid Sulfate Soils Summary References and Suggested Reading 17 Prevention of Arsenic Mobilization related to Sulfide Oxidation in Aquifers Introduction Aquifer Management, Pyrite Oxidation, and Arsenic Prevention of Arsenic Mobilization Physical Methods for Removing Oxygen References and Suggested Reading PART III PREDICTION AND PREVENTION OF ACID MINE DRAINAGE, ROCK DRAINAGE, AND SULFATE SOILS 18 Overview of Acid Drainage Prediction and Prevention Introduction Overburden Analysis Static Testing Kinetic Tests Assessment of Acid Rock Drainage and Metals Release Assessment of Waste Materials Water Quality and Acid Mine Drainage: Premine Predictions and Postmine Comparisons Summary Problems and Questions References and Suggested Reading 19 Acid–Base Accounting Associated with Acid Rock Drainage Introduction Neutralization Potential Procedures Acid Generation Potential Procedures Screening Assessment Criteria References and Suggested Reading 20 Acid–Base Accounting Test Procedures Introduction BC Research, Inc.
10 Acid mine drainage floc is composed primarily of iron hydroxides and small amounts of other metal oxyhydroxides (aluminum, manganese, and various trace elements) that were dissolved originally in the acid mine drainage. Once dewatered, they can be disposed of in surface mine backfills, underground mines, or spread on the surface for further drying. 1 Passive system design flowchart. , ; Skousen and Ziemkiewicz,). 2 Simplified cross-sectional view of an aerobic wetland. 3 Aerobic wetlands that are ponds with organic substrates and vegetation.
The solids are then settled in a large surface pond downstream of the mixer. 3 Hydrated lime is mixed with the acid drainage in this aeration and mixing basin, which is then drained to a large surface impoundment where suspended solids are settled. 4 Pebble quicklime, CaO, is used in conjunction with the Aquafix Water Treatment System utilizing a waterwheel concept. The water turns the waterwheel, which turns an auger, releasing the chemical into the water. 5 Bags of soda ash briquettes are dumped in the hopper and water flows into the box, dissolving the solid briquettes for release.